Current Status of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen-targeted Alpha Radioligand Therapy in Prostate Cancer

Current Status of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen-targeted Alpha Radioligand Therapy in Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent malignancy and leading cause of mortality in men. Despite the development of various drugs, such as novel androgen receptor signaling inhibitors and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase inhibitors targeting homologous recombination repair-related genetic mutations, prognosis of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer remains unfavorable. However, recent advances in nuclear medicine have allowed for both imaging diagnostics and therapeutic interventions by targeting molecules specifically expressed in cancer cells with radioisotopes (RI). γ-rays are used in nuclear medicine imaging, whereas in therapy, α or β-emitting RIs are administered to target cells in radiation therapy. PCa, in particular, exhibits the characteristic features of radioligand therapy, as the membrane protein prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is proportionally highly expressed in malignancy compared to normal tissues. The administered RI-labeled compound binds to PSMA, enabling specific targeting of PCa for treatment.

Unlike β-rays, α-rays have a shorter range and impart stronger energy to DNA, allowing α-particles to exhibit a higher linear energy transfer. Due to such characteristics, PSMA-targeted α radiotherapy is expected to have potent cytotoxic effects and fewer side effects on normal organs, making them more likely to be widely adopted in the future. However, reports on PSMA-targeted α radiotherapy differ in aspects, such as prior PSMA-targeted β radiotherapy, the administered doses, and the number of treatment cycles. Therefore, in this review, we compile the reports on treatments utilizing α-emitting isotopes targeting PSMA in patients with PCa.

READ THE ARTICLE – https://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/anticanres/44/3/879.full.pdf

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